Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

What does a pancreas do?

The pancrease is a gland organ. pancrease is found inside the belly. To digest the foods we eat, a fit pancrease makes the right chemicals (insulin and different key enzymes and hormones) in the proper mass at the well times. The pancrease also makes the hormone insulin and emits it into the bloodstream, in which it set a normal sugar level. A fit pancrease makes these enzymes about 2. 2 pints (1 liter) per day. The end five percent hold loads of hundreds of endocrine cells referred to as islets of Langerhans.

These grape-like cellular clusters make useful hormones that adjust pancreatic secretions and control the level of blood sugar. upset with insulin level can result in diabetes. Other feasible health problems gird pancreatitis and pancreatic most cancers. If you keep healthy your pancrease, it can help you maintain your weight.

Functions of the Pancreas

The pancrease has two key functions:

  •  Exocrine function:
  • Endocrine function
  •  Exocrine function:

The pancrease contains exocrine glands that help in digestion and exocrine function’s miles a part of the digestive system and give rise to insulin and different key enzymes and hormones that help break down ingredients.
These enzymes take in trypsin and chymotrypsin to digest proteins; amylase for the ingestion of carbohydrates and lipase to break down fats. When food comes in the stomach, these pancreatic juices(enzymes and hormones) are let out into a system of ducts that come to a climax in the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to form the ampulla of Vater which is found in the first part of the small intestine, name the duodenum. The common bile duct starts in the liver and the gall-bladder and makes an extra useful digestive juice name bile. The pancreatic juices and bile that are let go into the duodenum, aid the body to digest fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.


Prepared as acini
intercalated ducts penetrate the acini
on every side of the acini are basement membranes
Acinar cells have zymogen molecules:


Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

  •  Endocrine function

The pancrease has an endocrine function as it lets go of juices without gap into the bloodstream, and it has an exocrine facet because it let go of juices into ducts. The endocrine component of the pancreas consists of islet cells that make and let out useful hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Two of the vital Pancreatic hormones are Insulin and Glucagon:

Insulin, which acts to lower blood sugar, and
Glucagon, which acts to raise blood sugar.
Keep valid blood sugar levels is vital to the work of key body organs as well as the brain, liver, and kidneys.


Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

Rounded clusters of cells organize as islets

  • Islet of Langerhans
  •    islets organize as cords and clumps
  • Over a million islets
  • More abundant in the tail region

In between islets have capillaries

  • Drain hormones into it.

Four types of islet cells

1. A(alpha) – most abundant

  • Glucagon: it raises blood glucose by glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and gluconeogenesis

2. B(beta)

  • Insulin: it reduces blood glucose

3. D(delta)

  • Somatostatin: it stops the release of other islet cell hormones

4. F

  • pancreatic polypeptides: it controls gastric emission

Where is the Pancrease

The pancrease is found from the top left side of the belly to the back of the stomach. looks horizontally near parts of the belly. These parts of the body that are closest to it

  • The small intestine,
  • The liver, and
  • The spleen.

Anatomy of the Pancrease 

The pancrease is a mix of the endocrine and exocrine glands. The huge part of the pancrease, which is named the chief of the pancrease, is set toward the middle of the belly. The head of the pancrease is looked at the point where the stomach links with the initial part of the small intestine. This is where the stomach enters the digested food into the intestine, and from here the pancrease emit digestive enzymes into this point. Almost all of the pancrease (95%) consists of exocrine tissue that makes pancreatic enzymes for digestion. The remaining tissue contains endocrine cells named islets of Langerhans.

The narrow part of the pancrease extends to the left side of the belly after to the spleen. A duct makes the length of the pancrease, and it’s miles joined through a number of small branches from the glandular tissue. The end of this duct is hooked up to a similar duct that comes from the liver, which emits bile to the duodenum.

It is soft,

about six to ten inches long, and

It is like a flat pear or a fish in shape

lies transversely in the bottom of the belly wall
L1-L2 level
Retroperitoneal (out-side peritoneal cavity)

Divided into

  • head
  • neck
  • body
  • tail

Important relations


Lying down in the C-shape concavity of the duodenum

IVC and bile duct lie behind the head


Portal vein behind the neck. The trapped part of the pancrease is named the neck or the body of the pancrease.


left renal artery, and
left suprarenal arteries are behind the body.


The thin part of the pancrease named the tail and it is spread on the left side of the body.

  • The left kidney is behind the tail
  • related to the splenic hilum

Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

Duct system

Main pancreatic duct

  • Extends from the tail to the head
  • joins the bile duct to form the hepatopancreatic


  • Also, called the ampulla of Vater
  • from time to time both ducts open one by one
  • opens into the descending part of the duodenum

At key duodenal papilla

  • Extra duct when present meet with the main pancreatic duct

opens to the lesser duodenal papilla

  • Smooth muscle sphincters control the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum

Pancreatic duct sphincter

  • Bile duct sphincter
  • The hepatopancreatic sphincter (of Oddi)

Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

Blood supply

A number of major blood vessels contain the pancrease,
the superior mesenteric artery,
the superior mesenteric vein,
the portal vein, and
the celiac axis, supplying blood to the pancrease and other abdominal organs.

Study and confirm again next time.

From the splenic artery.

  • Branch: coeliac artery
  • Branch: common hepatic artery

From the gastroduodenal artery.

  • Branch: superior pancreatico-duodenal artery

From the superior mesenteric artery.

  • Branch: inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery

Venous drainage.

  • Veins accompany the arteries and then drains to

Splenic artery.

  • Superior mesenteric vein.
  • Both join the portal vein & enters the liver.

Pancrease functions Anatomy Characteristics

Characteristics of pancrease 

To digest the foods we eat, a fit pancrease makes the right chemicals (insulin and different key enzymes and hormones) in the proper mass at the well times.
The exocrine tissues emit a clear, watery, alkaline juice that includes some useful enzymes. These crush down meals into small molecules that may be absorbed by way of the intestines. The enzymes consist of:

  • Trypsin and
  • chymotrypsin to digest proteins,
  • Amylase to break down carbohydrates
  • lipase, to interrupt down fats into fatty acids and cholesterol

The endocrine portion, or islets of Langerhans, emit insulin and other hormones. Pancreatic beta cells leave insulin while blood sugar levels rise. Whilst blood sugar falls, pancreatic alpha cells emit the hormone glucagon. Glucagon reasons glycogen to be broken down into glucose in the liver. The glucose then goes into the bloodstream and control the blood sugar level.


Diseases of the Pancrease

Disorders upset the pancrease include

  • pancreatitis,
  • precancerous conditions such as
  • PanIN an
  • IPMN, and
  • pancreatic cancer.
  • Hypoglycemia or low diabetes
  • Hyperglycemia or high diabetes

Each disorder may show different symptoms and need different therapy. Read more

 Can you live without a pancreas?

It is possible to live without a pancreas. But when the whole pancreas is removed, people are left without the cells that make insulin and other hormones that help keep safe blood sugar levels. These people get severe diabetes, which can be hard to control because they are totally based on insulin shots.

About gillani@11 73 Articles
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